Tag Archive: Foraging

Hazelnuts- Wikipedia image

Quick Hazel History  

Pollen counts reveal that Corylus avellana was the first of the temperate deciduous forest trees to immigrate, establish itself and then become abundant in the post glacial period. Evidence of the cultivation of hazelnuts exists in excavations sites in China that date back over 5,000 years ago. An ancient manuscript also listed hazelnuts as one of China’s five sacred foods. Archaeologists have found large quantities of hazelnut shells in Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in what is now Sweden, Denmark, and Germany. The Mesolithic era, or Middle Stone Age, dates back around 10,000 years ago until the Neolithic period, which started 7,000 years ago. Hazelnuts were a large part of the prehistoric hunter and gatherer’s diet, and the nuts probably provided them with enough nutrition to sustain them between hunting seasons.

Throughout history, it was believed that hazel trees and their nuts possessed mystical powers and healing properties. Divining rods were made out of Y-shaped hazel tree branches to locate underground springs, buried treasure, and minerals and ores. Ancient Romans would light hazel torches during wedding nights as a sign of fertility and to ensure a long and happy marriage.

Hazel trees were introduced to the United States by European immigrants. The first hazelnut tree in the Pacific Northwest was planted in 1858 by Sam Strickland, a retired English sailor in Scottsburg, Oregon. Today, hazelnuts grown in the Willamette Valley make up 99 percent of hazelnuts produced in the United States. The remaining 1 percent is produced in Washington. In 1989, the hazelnut (commonly called the filbert by Oregonians) became the official state nut of Oregon.

Hazelnut-producing regions of the world are all close to large bodies of water, which moderate the climate. About 70% of the world’s hazelnut production comes from the Black Sea region of northern Turkey. Italy produces about 20% of world production. Spain, France, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and the United States produce most of the rest. World production and supply of hazelnuts—as well as the supply of other nuts—influence hazelnut prices in the United States.

The dominant feature controlling the distribution of commercial hazelnut production in the United States is the moderate climate of the Pacific Northwest coastal valleys, which is influenced by the Pacific Ocean. Virtually all of the hazelnuts produced commercially in the United States are
grown in the Pacific Northwest. Approximately 99% are grown in Oregon’s Willamette Valley, and Washington produces the remaining 1%. Pacific Northwest production represents 3%–5% of world hazelnut production.

The Squirrel Hack

Your adorable nemesis

If you live in an climate that is favorable to hazelnut trees, I bet you’ve run across more than a few sprouting in the lawn, or the bushes, or in the garden where they aren’t supposed to be, set down in ‘secret’ spots by enterprising squirrels.  I spent far more time pulling new saplings out than planting them, truth be told. There’s an interesting way to ‘hack’ this habit of squirrels to steal and hide your nuts:  Give them places to hide them. A gallon pot hidden near a tree, a bucket of sawdust, cinder blocks with accessible holes, all of these represent a great storage space to a squirrel. Let them do your collecting for you, and steal them right back!

Side note on keeping squirrels at bay, and this is just personal observation.  I don’t know why, but ducks seem to despise squirrels. My ducks used to chase and harass any visiting squirrel to my two trees in the backyard, and when I had hanging out them there, I sure had a lot more nuts to collect!  If you were keeping a small orchard of hazelnuts, running ducks under the trees to pasture them might just reduce the amount of robbery.

You could also eat the squirrels.  Just sayin’.  Apparently they taste like nutty rabbit.

How to Care for your Hazels

Mostly, caring for your hazels is about pruning, since they grow pretty quickly, and apart from a few diseases like Eastern Filbert Blight, they are very easy to care for. Pruning frequently makes your tree more productive, as it puts more energy into making nuts than new branches, which it will happily do if left alone. It also extends the life of the tree, in the long run.

Basics: Ideally, you’re looking for a not too dense tree with good air circulation with an open crown to let the light in evenly.  Select the best 3-5 trunks with sturdy branching, and prune the rest out.  Any branches that cross and rub against each other should be taken out. Branches that grow outward at too sharp an angle or downward should also be pruned out. Branches that grow taller than 10-15 ft. can be lopped, you want a tree that’s sturdy, and not impossible to reach the top of. Be a little cautious with chopping it short though, as the tree will bush out below cuts and if you do it too much, block out light to the lower branches. Just do the branches that go rocketing straight up.

More thorough instructions on training a young tree here

Luckily, the suckers you will need to remove most often are whippy and flexible, and easily used for things like wattle fencing or basketry, and the wood, once seasoned, makes pretty good firewood. A little on the faster burning side, but if you have lots of free wood from pruning, then that’s no big deal.

If you’re not worried about producing a big nut crop, hazels can be coppiced, or cut back down to the ground so that they produce many thin, straight branches in the following year.  These are great for fencing, making chairs, hoops and other garden supports, and anything else you want a flexible wood for. Coppiced hazels can be harvested in a year if you want thin bendy stakes, or in a few if you want nice thick poles.

Fertilizing: Honestly, hazelnuts are very easygoing in their requirements and you don’t need to fuss too much over the fertilizer. If you’re growing a proper orchard, by all means, then get a leaf tissue analysis or soil test done at a lab and respond accordingly, but for the average homeowner,  some nice compost or a balanced fertilizer around the drip line in spring should keep your tree happy. Hazels don’t appreciate drought, so in the Pacific Northwest, a few good deep waterings during the drought season are a requirement. All the usual rules apply:  Keep your soil happy and full of life with organic amendments, mulch, make sure drainage is good, water deeply if there’s a period of drought.

Production: Hazelnut trees might produce a few nuts when they are 2 or 3 years old, but they are not considered commercially productive until 4 years of age. Mature orchards produce from less than 2,000 pounds of dry nuts per acre (2.24 metric tons per hectare) to more than 4,000 pounds per acre (4.48 metric tons per hectare). An orchard can remain productive for about 40–50 years if managed well and kept free of disease. Assuming you aren’t growing an orchard, one mature tree can produce up to 25 lbs. of nuts.

So, you actually want an Orchard? Check here.

Getting Nuts: Mow under the trees before nuts start to fall, it will make it easier to rake up the nuts.  It takes about six weeks for them to all fall off, but you can hurry that up a bit by shaking the tree. If you feel really enterprising, you can put an old bedsheet under it first, to make everything cleaner. Not all the nuts will be good, but that’s easy to tell, simply float them in water. If they float, toss, if they sink, good. Chuck any that have holes in them, unless you enjoy eating bugs.

Most sources go straight to the drying, but don’t miss out on the fresh ones- they are delicious, they just don’t keep as long. Try a few just as they are, they’re more tender and moist but just as tasty. Harvested early, just before they start to fall, the British call them cobnuts.  Yes, they are specific varieties, but they are still hazelnuts, and if you collect green nuts in August from your own tree, they will taste the same. At this point the frilly skin is still green, and nuts are still on the tree.  They are fresh and milky and delicious, so give them a try!

Once hazelnut picking has been accomplished, it’s time to dry the nuts out. Start drying them within 24 hours after picking. Lay them out in a single layer on a screen to allow for good aeration. Place them in a warm, dry place and stir them around every day. Hazelnuts dried in this manner should be completely dried in 2-4 weeks. To speed up the process, you can use a food dryer. Set the temperature of the dryer to 90-105 degrees F. (32-40 C.). A food dryer will shorten the drying time to 2-4 days. You may also dry the nuts over a furnace or radiator, whatever will keep the temp around 90-105 F. and no more than that. Also, if you shell the nuts prior to drying them, the dry time will decrease significantly. Once the hazelnuts are dry, the meat will be cream colored and firm. As long as the nuts are not shelled, hazelnuts can be stored at room temp for several months. Shelled nuts should be used within a few weeks or stored in the refrigerator or frozen for up to a year.

Eastern Filbert Blight: A total bastard.

Rather than cut and paste a huge amount of information here, how about you just check out Pacific Northwest Pest Management Handbooks.

EFB is the main disease you need to worry about, but it’s easily identified, and if you are going to the trouble of purchasing new stock, then be sure to ascertain if it’s an EFB resistant strain of hazel.  If you want to grow from seed, or layering an unknown tree, you are taking your chances! You will still get nuts from an infected tree, but not nearly as much, and the tree will have a seriously shortened lifespan.

EFB resistant Hazelnuts

Hazel Varieties: A few nuggets of wisdom on hazel varieties from Michael Dolan of Burnt Ridge Nursery: Hazelnuts are one of the most widely-adapted nut trees on the continent. Some are even hardy to zone 3.
Bush hazels (Corylus americana) typically only grow to 10′ and can easily be kept at 6′. The nuts fall free of the husks; this variety native to Eastern US. Hardy to zone 3. Small nuts.
Beaked hazels (Corylus cornuta) are the West Coast native with smaller bushes than the commercial varieties, and give smaller nuts that are challenging to get out of their husks (which have a pointed, or “beaked” collar at the non-stem end).
European hazels (Corylus avellana) are the most commonly cultivated commercial varieties, and Oregon State Univ has come out with blight-resistant varieties in the last 10 years or so – Jefferson is most commonly substituted for the old favorite variety Barcelona – and pollinators for Jefferson include Yamhill, Theta, Eta, Felix, Dorris, McDonald, York, Wepster. Sacajawea, Halle’s Giant and Tonda Di Giffoni are older varieties that are somewhat less blight resistant, but Tonda Di Giffoni is the favored Italian variety due to its ability to blanch perfectly and remove the inner husk.
Turkish Tree Hazels (Corylus colurna) are a tree form that yields smallish nuts in a highly decorative husk grouping – each cluster has multiple husks that have a hard, scrolled pattern to the pointed ends, giving the entire cluster a crazy, fist-sized brown snowflake-like appearance.

Extra Bonus Level: Truffles! You can now get hazelnut trees which have been inoculated with truffle mycelium. What better deal than to be able to get two crops in one space, the aim of permaculture and agroforestry? This new tech is still not very widespread, but there are producers out there selling Oaks and Hazels which should produce truffles in about the same time it takes to get a decent crop of nuts. Truffle harvest generally starts just after hazelnut harvest is over. If you’re trying to get the maximum out of your plantings, it will be worth the extra cost output to begin with. Now all you need is a properly trained dog!

Getting Some: That all depends on where you are. Oregon has most of the dedicated hazelnut growers, if you’re in the states, I’d look there first for bare root stock. In Canada, there’s quite a few nut growers but some don’t ship to certain provinces. NatureTech looks to be the best source of EFB resistant trees on the west coast. Your local nursery might carry hazelnuts, or they might not.  Nut trees are not as popular as fruit trees, so be aware you may have to go the extra mile to get what you want. If you’re lucky enough to know someone with EFB resistant trees, layering to get new trees couldn’t be easier, or remove a sucker from the base that has some roots attached.

Happy growing!


It’s not exactly nettle time yet.  Spring felt so early (two weeks ago. Now we’re back in deep freeze, yuck!) this year, I feel like I should be out harvesting already, but the nettles I have seen are up only a few inches and that seems a little too labour intensive to make it worth my time and bring back some bags full of prickly goodness. You could certainly harvest when they first emerge, they’re really at their best when small and young, but I want to collect quite a bit so I wait until they’re more like 6 inches high with a few more leaves.

Almost everyone knows how stinging nettle feels from accidental contact.  It’s not evil, it’s just protecting it’s incredibly nutritious self.  It’s high in protein, has a flavour similar to spinach, (and yes, that’s a bit like saying any new white meat ‘tastes like chicken’ 😉  it is rich in vitamins A, K and C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium.  If it were not covered in this effective defense system, herbivores would mow it to the ground for the food value, and it would not survive!

Stinging Nettle Urtica dioica. Wikipedia commons

Why does it sting? Stinging nettles are covered with countless tiny hollow hairs called trichomes. When something brushes against these hairs, their very fragile silica tips break off, and the remainder of the hair can then act like a needle. It pierces the skin, and releases a cocktail of various chemicals from the base of the hair, and it’s these that cause the sting. Not all compounds have been identified, but it definitely contains histamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin. Serotonin does not only make you happy. When injected by the stinging nettle it functions as an irritant, leading to pain. Acetylcholine is another neurotransmitter that also hurts when it comes in the form of nettles, and histamine we know well from allergic reactions, although it too has multiple functions in the body. Oxalic and tataric acid may also be responsible for the persistence of pain, although the study that showed this to be true was actually on Urtica thunbergiana, not U. dioica. Moroidin, leukotriene C4 and leukotriene B4 may also be found in nettle stings. How badly it stings is going to vary from place to place and season to season, full sun to shade.  Nettles quite likely have the ability to modulate what kind and how much of these substances they contain depending on the risk of being eaten.

Plantago major. Photo by Rasbak

What helps the sting?  If you get stung, first try not to scratch or rub it.  I know, ow, but you’ll only make it worse. Wash off the area, preferably with soap, to remove the hairs and chemicals responsible for the sting. You can use a piece of duct tape to pull out any remaining hairs. You can try chewing up a plantain leaf, Plantago major (which is usually pretty close by) and putting it on the sting.  This generally helps me right away.  Same goes for crushed jewelweed. (Impatiens noli tangere) I’ve seen dock recommended in a ton of places, but in my personal experience it doesn’t work very well. Maybe I have the wrong Rumex? Baking soda made into a paste helps soothe the area. Calamine does help, antihistamine cream, and aloe gel may all help with the persistent sting and redness.  Keep it cool, possibly with an ice pack.  Heat will make the reaction worse. No hot showers while it’s still hurting.

Getting Some Nettle. In general, ground that doesn’t run out of water seasonally, good, slightly acid soil, and the border between woods and fields is ideal nettle hunting country. Nettles love a dark, fertile loam and can be great indicators of areas where the soil is rich, maybe with old deposits of manure, deep leaf litter in fall, or old garden plots. Nettles like growing above ditches and streams, too. Just maybe avoid the ditch by the roadside.  Ick.

Harvesting Roots. Even if it’s a touch early to harvest the top parts of the plant now, it IS a great time to harvest the roots. I like harvesting roots while plants are at least semi dormant, and at least with a tiny frill of new leaves on top, you can tell where they are. Dig outside the foliage area and under the plant at least a foot to get the roots without damaging them. Also, don’t be an ass.  Ideally, a forager should be able to collect without damaging the patch or even making it obvious that you’ve been there.  Don’t take more than a quarter of any patch, space out your digs, fill in your holes and replace the duff. A casual hiker-by should not be able to tell what you’ve done.

Once you have your roots, thoroughly clean them in fresh water.  I do this in the sink with a drain sieve in because you’re going to have to scrub a fair bit to get every last bit of dirt off. Chop the roots into small pieces to use. The smaller the size, the easier it is to get everything out of them if you’re going to make tea or tincture. If you’re planning on freezing the root to preserve it you can leave it as whole as possible to keep it from losing vit. C and oxidizing. (drying is good too, the mineral content won’t degrade but freezing preserves the root in as fresh a state as possible with vitamins intact.)

Harvesting Aerial Parts. There’s a number of hacks to avoid getting stung.  #1 would be wearing gloves, of course, but if you’re like me you don’t remember to bring gloves when the mood strikes to jump out of the car and start bagging some handy herb. Very young nettles sometimes don’t sting- so now, when they’re 2-3 inches tall and just emerging, is the least annoying time to harvest.  However, the intensity of sting seems to vary WIDELY depending on where you are in the country or even in the same woods, so don’t depend on that.  If you’re near a stream, there may be clay around.  You can coat your hands in clay before picking, and it does help a lot. You can use big leaves to protect your hands but that’s very fussy and not great for a lot of picking. Knowing how to handle the nettle helps, if you’re careful.  Nettle hairs on the stem usually have a direction to them, so take a peek first. You can pick with bare hands if the only pressure is in the same direction as the hairs, pressing the hairs against the stem.  It’s tricky, but possible. My preferred method is a snip and flick one. I use scissors or pruners (whatever’s in my pocket) to snip off stems, pick the nettle up with the scissors, and flick it into the bag. Easy!

Photo by me -Leila Bee

Preserving the harvest.  You can dry nettles to preserve them for later, and I do- dry stuff packs down and stores so nicely! Dried, powdered nettle is great for adding to smoothies or stew. If you want the fullest range of benefits preserved, I would freeze it. Chop to get rid of stems, and blanch quickly (60-90 seconds) in hot water, put into a cold water bath to stop further cooking, then drain or squeeze out the excess water to freeze.  Chopping them up first means you get more in a bag. You can also make nettle pesto, and freeze it in ice cube trays which can be eaten as is or thrown into other recipes for a nutritional boost. Freeze drying is the ultimate method of preservation, but that either requires a fair bit of time or special equipment.

Mondo Medicinal Value

Nettle is a BIG subject with a long, long history of use, widespread distribution,  and has actually been studied extensively with hundreds of clinical trials to back up it’s numerous nutritional and medicinal benefits.  I’m going to try my best to put as many as I can here, so bear with me. It might get long. I’ll try not to be too dry.

I’ve heard nettles called both a man’s herb, and a women’s tonic.  It’s both and neither.  Nettle has clear benefits for hormone related conditions no matter which tackle you are packing, and plenty of nutrition for anybody.

Prostate Health. Nettle root can be used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, also known as an enlarged prostate, nettle root may provide relief from symptoms of this condition, particularly when taken in tandem with other medicinal herbs, such as saw palmetto. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, nettle root can help reduce the urge to urinate constantly, as well as reduce the amount of urine and dripping post-urination. But nettle root does not, unlike other medications, reduce the size of the prostate; it only provides some relief from the symptoms.  It also seems that when stinging nettle (along with other supplements) is combined with antibiotics to treat chronic bacterial prostatitis that the elimination of symptoms and long-term outcome is better than taking just an antibiotic alone. Nettle also has beneficial effects on androgenic alopecia (male pattern baldness).  So if your hair’s thinning, you may want to think about trying nettle root.

Side note- if you use pine pollen as a testosterone booster, combining it with nettle will compound the effects.

Menstruation, PCOS.  Taking nettle leaf as a vegetable or tea can reduce a heavy period to a more normal one and help prevent anemia with a large dose of iron that’s easily assimilated. Sufferers of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome) may be able to use nettle root to assuage symptoms. There are several natural substances that bind to and stimulate sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), which then binds some of the testosterone in our blood stream, which in turn reduces the hyperandrogenism of PCOS. The root of the nettles plant contains many lignans and these compounds have an affinity to SHBG in humans. Nettles root can also affect aromatase inhibition which could inhibit the conversion of the weaker testosterone to dihydrotestosterone.

I can’t find a definite yay or nay on whether it’s good for pregnancy or not.  Some sources say yes, some no, because it does have an effect on hormones but is highly nutritious and has many benefits for someone with a higher demand on vitamins and minerals. (Personally I’d say it’s a good thing, but I’d ask your doctor, I’m no expert on pregnancy.) After the kid’s out though, definitely eat those nettles, as they aid in milk production in lactating mothers. They also help with a bunch of postpartum problems like bleeding, general nutrition and UTI’s.

Hemostatic. Due to the large amount of vit. K in nettles, which is required for regular clotting, it’s great for treating bleeding (It’s not a first aid measure though). Midwives often use it for spotting during pregnancy, it can regulate periods that are too heavy, counteracting persistent bleeding during menopause, and other types of excessive bleeding.  That being said- if you don’t know why you’re bleeding see your doctor, don’t just drink tea and hope for the best!

Allergies. Interesting that something containing histamine will help arrest or reduce allergic reactions, but it certainly does! A 2009 study also showed that nettle inhibited proinflammatory pathways related to allergic rhinitis by antagonizing histamine 1 receptor, inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) formation and inhibiting degranulation. This is great news for people who experience seasonal allergies, or who have histamine sensitivity. Works best for seasonal allergies if you start taking nettles before the known triggers start so the body is already less reactive to histamines by the time the pollen starts to fly. It will still help after, but proactive use gets better results.

UTI’s, Kidney Stones. Nettle is sometimes used to treat urinary tract infections (including chronic ones), cystitis, kidney stones and other kidney troubles.  It is diuretic, so yes, you will pee a bit extra if you’re taking nettle.  One note of caution if you’re using it to treat bladder or kidney problems, you have to do the harvest before it goes into flower. Calcium oxalate crystals form on the leaves after flowering and these will have the opposite effect, irritating the bladder and kidneys.  So spring collection only, for that!

Arthritis. Nettle can be used to treat pain in the muscles and joints. For the last 2000 years at least, people simply stung themselves with a handful of the aerial parts, which would certainly result in irritation and pain, but afterward reduces swelling and pain from the arthritis.  Now it could be that this is due to nerve distraction effect like capcaisin, but more likely the sting injects a histaminic substance and the body mounts an antihistaminic reaction, some of which goes to the sting, some to the other inflammation. We’re still not sure exactly how it works.  Nettle is most commonly used to treat osteoarthritis. A 2013 issue of “Phytomedicine” found that stinging nettle, including the root, when extracted into an oil-based solution, helped reduce inflammation. So even topically in salve, nettle could be of use! Great potential was indicated, but further study is still required. As usual, right?

Gout. Nettle lowers the concentration of uric acid in the blood, so is also helpful for gout.  It may help in the case of many types of joint pain by promoting the elimination of uric acid from joints with a gentle, alkalizing diuretic activity. Again, you want to harvest the pre flowering top parts to avoid calcium oxalate crystals.

Cautions. In addition to possible side effects, stinging nettle, as a supplement and as a foodstuff, may cause adverse side effects with certain medicines. If you are taking blood thinners or high blood pressure medication, be aware that stinging nettle can affect your blood’s clotting ability, as well as potentially lower your blood pressure, reducing and enhancing the effects of these medications respectively. Nettle may also increase the effects of diabetes drugs, diuretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Stinging nettle may make it harder for your body to rid itself of lithium as a result of its diuretic effect.

Young nettles with purple tints- photo Leila Bee

‘Let Food be thy Medicine’…. Eat them because they taste GOOD. Aside from all the carrying on about how great they are for you, nettles are simply a tasty spring green.  Sometimes I’ll just eat a steamed bowl of nettles with butter on it and nothing else. Nomnomnom. They’re a bit spinachy, but nettles have their own flavour and you’ll just have to try them and see. This is one time that taking your medicine will taste just fine. There’s a ton of recipes out there, but you can basically use them in anything you’d use a hearty green leafy thing in. Here’s a bunch of recipes to start with.

But Wait, There’s MORE!

Cordage and Fibres for Weaving. So far it’s been all about the spring harvest.  When it comes to using them for the fibre, you actually want to wait until late summer or early fall, when the stems are at their tallest and stretchiest, because if you want to use them for weaving or cordage you want the longest strands you can get. Small tip- shade grown nettles are taller, sun grown have stronger fibres. rather than put the whole process in this post, I’m going to give you a link to a step by step instruction with pictures here.

Dye. Nettles make a good dye, and although the colour is fairly muted it’s also surprisingly lightfast for a vegetable dye. You’re not going to get an emerald green, although a little copper in the dye bath will turn up the green a bit. Here’s a good tutorial on nettle dye.

Animal Fodder. Although they won’t generally touch it in the field, farm animals who like vegetative matter quite enjoy nettles once dried, blanched, or baled into hay.  It’s as good for them as it is for us, so if you’re at all concerned that your animals aren’t getting enough nutrition, try adding dried nettles to their feed. The abundant carotenoids give egg yolks a punch of colour, so try adding some nettle to the chicken feed in the cold months when there’s not a lot of fresh green around. Enhancing milk production works for goats, sheep and cows as it does for us, so nettles for your livestock is a great addition during baby season.

Compost. Nettles are an excellent compost accelerator, especially if you’re a little heavy on the carbon in your heap. If your heap is a little sluggish, try turning the layers over with a few armfuls of nettle. Stems are fine, although chopping everything a bit helps speed up decomposition.  No roots, unless you want a nettle forest!

Biodynamic prep #504 is made with nettle. Steiner said that using the compost prep nettle is “like an infusion of intelligence for the soil” (Agriculture, 100) For this prep, collect nettles before flowering, dry them, and bury them stuffed into clay pots or wooden boxes laid mouth to mouth in the soil, in fall. They’re supposed to stay there for a full year.   (note- I like a lot of things about biodynamic farming, and I’ve seen things work when I can’t really quantify WHY, but I’m very attached to being able to prove results and reason out how they work, so I’m a little reticent to start talking about enhancing the ‘intelligence of the soil’.)

Fermented Nettle for Liquid Feed: This is more like a Korean Natural Farming technique, but Victorians used it in steam heated glasshouses too.  It works.  It stinks, but it WORKS. Make some fermented nettle liquid fertilizer by filling a large jar or bucket with the leaves and stems, bruising the foliage first. Weight down the nettles with a rock or whatever you have laying around and then cover with water. Only fill three-quarters of the bucket with water to allow room for the foam that will be created during the brewing process. Use non-chlorinated water, possibly from a rain barrel, and set the bucket somewhere you won’t smell it. Leave the mix for one to three weeks to ferment, stirring every couple of days until it stops bubbling. Finally, strain out the nettles and dilute the concoction at one part fertilizer to 10 parts water for watering plants or 1:20 for direct foliar application. Use leftovers in compost, or keep the bucket going now that you have a fermentation ‘mother’ by adding new bruised plant material and water.

Butterflies! Nettles are essential food for a few types of butterflies, as the sting keeps grazing animals off the plants and the caterpillars safe until they pupate. If you like Peacock, Red Admiral, Painted Lady, Small Tortoiseshell or Comma butterflies, don’t take down that patch on your property.

That’s…not even everything, I’m sure.  Whew.

After all this delving I’ll be sure to be on top of my nettle harvest this year.  With all these benefits, I really don’t want to run out again. (Shakes last bag with a handful of sad dried leaves in it.)

Happy Harvesting!